The History of We the People - Part 3



By Walter Giddings

October 24, 2021

Is the Framework of Our Nation a Covenant?

Greetings Fellow Sheep, Kindred, and Neighbours.  We are on a first name basis here.  My name is Walter.  We meet to share Resources in order to change what will happen tomorrow.  Our desire to change what will happen tomorrow is the basis of our Unity.  In our previous lesson, The Birth of America, we asked a question:  How do we know what will work, and what will not work?  Answer? 

History!  History prevents We the People from making the same mistakes twice!  Are we witnessing repeated attempts to corrupt the history of We the People? Are corruptions intended to prevent our knowing what works and what does not work?  Do repeated attempts to corrupt History have “in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States”? 

Shall we see what we remember of Our HistoryPop Quiz:  who can identify this Quotation?  Do not shout.  Show of hands. 

“When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equastation to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”

We discovered in our lesson The Birth of America, the “Action of Second  Continental Congress, July 4, 1776,” was not the fruit of Rebellion.  To anyone wishing to insist The Declaration of Independence was the fruit of Rebellion, we urge you to read The Proof offered by The Framers, in that Declaration.  Look at the end of the long 2nd paragraph of The Declaration. [p 36].  The Framers offer of proof appears in the last 2 sentences: 

The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.

To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.” Action of Second Continental Congress, The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, July 4, 1776.

The 3rd Paragraph of The Declaration begins the 27 accusations in an Arraignment of a Reigning King on the World Stage.  To this day has anyone successfully found a flaw in this charging instrument?  Have any of the 27 Charges been disproven?

What is the Long Title of The Articles of Confederation --- 1778?  The Articles of Confederation and  __[blank]__   _[blank]_.  2 Words:  Fill in the Blanks. 

What are The Articles of Confederation?  And what was, and is, their Purpose?  The Delegates of the Thirteen States affixed their names to The Articles of Confederation at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 9, 1778, “and in the third year of the independence of America.”  What was the purpose of The Articles?  Article II expresses that the authorized Delegates of each of the Thirteen States delegated unambiguous limited powers, authorities, and jurisdictions to the United States in Congress assembled.  A total of Thirteen Articles described the powers, jurisdictions and authorities, as the waging of defensive wars, first against British land and naval forces, and management of the general interests of the United States.  Each State retained management of their specific interests peculiar to them as States. 

The Long Title is The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union!  My discovery of The Long Title caused pay dirt to hit my mind.  This was my second Rude Awakening that my lack of intelligent participation in the affairs of my Country was the proximate direct Cause of our Nation’s Problems.  What words can I use to describe that overwhelming sense of Shame I felt at the Truth that I had me to blame!  Was I part of the Solution, or part of the Problem?  For those of you who have also arrived at this point and share this sense of Shame, you also know it is indescribable.  When I meet you, I know this Shame is shared.  Sharing the Shame is the only relief we know. 

To prevent the rest of you from saying we are too hard on ourselves, I need to share this story about my first Rude Awakening.  When I first suspected my complicity in the curses that have befallen America, I decided I needed to become a better private citizen in my native land.  I signed myself up for a self administered Civics course.  I made a 2nd attempt to read The Federalist Papers with understanding.  I failed.  I failed the 1st time in high school Civics class.  I even got a D in filling out a hypothetical 1040 Form!  And now I had failed the 2nd time to read The Federalist Papers with understanding.  In frustration I left my notes and page markers in my paperback copy, and put it up on the shelf.  

What are The Federalist Papers?  They are 85 letters to the public over the pseudonym Publius.  In our day we would call them Opinion Editorials.  First publication occurred at short intervals in the newspapers of New York City, beginning October 27, 1787.  The United States Supreme Court in the 1834 court case Cohen vs. Virginia, 19 US 264 said :  

“(the) Federalist papers are considered by the Courts as a great authority and as a complete commentary on our Constitution.”  Cohen vs. Virginia  19 US 264, 1834.   

Alexander Hamilton began this series of essays because he knew Governor George Clinton of New York was a staunch foe to The Ratification of The Constitution.  He was joined by John Jay, future Chief Justice of The Supreme Court, and James Madison, future 4th President under that Constitution.  In the last Federalist Paper #85, Hamilton wrote “to all the sincere lovers of the Union: 

“A Nation without a National Government is, in my view, an awful spectacle. The establishment of a Constitution, in time of profound peace, by the voluntary consent of a whole people, is a Prodigy, to the completion of which I look forward with trembling anxiety.”  Publius, Federalist Paper #85. 

New Hampshire became the 9th State to ratify on June 21, 1788, making the Constitution effective for the ratifying States.  The Virginia Ratification Debate was a pitched battle.  George Mason, Patrick Henry and many others were opposed to The Constitution because it had no Bill of Rights.  James Madison promised an unrelenting campaign to amend the Constitution in Congress and submit a Bill of Rights to The People.  News of Virginia’s Ratification shook New York.  Resistance caved, and one month later, July 26, 1788, New York became the 11th State to Ratify.  North Carolina followed November 21, 1789.  On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island agreed, making our Constitution the same as The Declaration:  Unanimous!  True to their Promise James Madison and the Virginians in Congress under the Constitution supported 12 Amendments.  The States quickly ratified 10, and The Bill of Rights became Organic Law in 1791.  George Mason said this: 

“A Legislature must not obstruct our Obedience to Him from whose punishment they cannot protect us.” George Mason, The Father of The Bill of Rights. 

Knowing these things, my conviction to read with understanding The Federalist Papers continued to disquiet me.  At age 69 I tried for the third time to understand The Federalist Papers.  I failed for the 3rd time.  Utterly defeated, I finally asked for Help.  The thought occurred to me to consult a book that years ago a grateful Family had given me from The Bookstore at Bible Camp.  It was a reproduction of The First American Dictionary of the English Language, Noah Webster, 1828I had seen it in the Bookstore.  That Dictionary uses Bible Quotes to illustrate American English Words in contextual use.  After Webster’s Death a publisher scrubbed all Bible Quotations from the text in the 1850 edition.  What was happening in America in 1850? 

Using the Reproduction of the 1828 Webster I looked up every word with the exception of a, an, the, of, by, for, with, and, because, since, and the like.  9 months later I had completed the first 3 Federalist Papers with understanding.  It reminded me of my Grandmother’s words.  “Walter, a lot can happen in 9 months”!

Reading with understanding The Federalist Papers at the age of 69 taught me we no longer speak the Language of our Forefathers who framed The Republic.  I have told this story on a few occasions.  On one occasion a man with an incredulous look on his face asked me, “If we are not speaking the language of our forefathers, what language are we speaking?”  His question surprised me.  I could only say, It is a cross between gutter vernacular and alley slang. 

My 3rd Rude Awakening occurred when I read the front cover of our Constitution Handbooks available here.  Who said this of The Constitution?  

“... its only keepers, the people.”  The President of The Constitutional Convention and the 1st President under The Constitution George Washington. 

That closed The Loop.  I had no escape.  I had abandoned my civic responsibility.  Are Rights Responsibilities?  As a citizen Soldier I had taken a solemn Oath “to support and defend the United States Constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic”.  I did not even have the common sense God gives us to continue reading and studying what our forefathers gave to us, their Posterity.  Anyone under this Sacred Oath cannot be prevented from reading it!  Did The Constitution fail me or did I fail The Constitution?  What was it I did not know?!

The long Title of The Articles of Confederation is The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.  Immediately following Article XIII, the Clause beginning “AND WHEREAS” says, in pertinent part:

“... and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents ... that the Union shall be perpetual.”  Done at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 9, 1778 “in the third year of the independence of America”. 

What does the word “plight” mean? 

PLIGHT, v.t. plite [Sax. .. to pledge,] 1.  To pledge; to give as security for the performance of some act;  but never applied to property or goods.  We say, he plighted his hand, his faith, his vows, his honor, his truth or troth.   ... To plight faith is, as it were, to deposit it in pledge for the performance of an act, on the non-performance of which, the pledge is forfeited.  1828 Webster. 

Can we see a man’s failure to do what he says he will do was a serious character flaw entirely destructive to his reputation in his community?  To plight is to pledge.  Is to pledge to promise?  To be bound by Oath?  To cut a Covenant? 

The doctrine of perpetual Union is mentioned in The Articles of Confederation 1778 a total of 5 times!  What does “perpetual” mean? 

PERPETUAL, a.  [ .. L. perpetuus ..]  1.  Never ceasing; continuing forever in future time; destined to be eternal;  as a perpetual covenant;  [Literally true with respect to the decrees of the Supreme Being.]  1828 Webster 

Was the 1st example of the use of “perpetual” in context, the expression “perpetual covenant”?  In The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union are we dealing with the Language of Covenants?  Is “Perpetual Union” the American Covenant? 

What is a “covenant”?  To answer this question we may be severely backed up, and at an extreme disadvantage!  To almost a complete extent the Pulpits of America no longer preach covenant.  They do not even mention that Marriage is a covenant.  Are oaths associated with covenants?  Did the bridegroom of the 17th Century in his vows of promise say, I plight thee my troth, I pledge you my truth?  Do we recall that old Maxim, that Axiom, “What happens in the Pulpits, happens in the Country”?  In order for that to be true, would an American Covenant have to exist?  Did God ordain Marriage?  Is he The Ruling Party in The Marriage Covenant?  Is God the Ruling Party in The American Covenant? 

If we can use the 1828 Webster to understand The Federalist Papers can we use the 1828 Webster to understand the word covenant? 

COVENANT, n. [Fr. convenant, the participle of convenir, to agree, .. from L. conventio.  Literally, a coming together; a meeting or agreement of minds.]  1.  A mutual consent of agreement of two  or more persons to do or to forbear some act or thing;  a contract;  stipulation.  A covenant is created by deed in writing, sealed and executed;  or it may be implied in the contract.  1828 Webster. 

1828 Webster has under the entry for “Covenant” 4 significations.  The 3rd Signification begins “In theology”.  I urge you to read it.  It establishes beyond doubt the Framers of the Republic understood The God of The Bible to be a covenant God.  If the God of The Bible is a covenant God, how does He feel about covenant breakers?

Does The Spectacle of Rioters and Looters stealing, and murdering Americans, and failing that, murdering uncounted Americans’ means of living, testify to a Rude Awakening?  Could this Rude Awakening fuel a return to The Oldest Literature in Adam, and the Refuge of Church?  Do the Wicked always overdo it? 

In our 1st Lesson The Birth of America we examined Evidence that America was not born in Rebellion!  What about succeeding generations?  Following Noah Webster’s Death, was the 1850 Edition of Webster’s Dictionary, bereft of all Scripture Quotations?  Could a reproduction of Webster’s First American Dictionary of the English Language teach us how to read and study The Bible?  Other than Rioters and Looters, who would object to “Thou shalt not steal”?  Other than Rioters and Looters, who would object to “Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour”?  Other than Rioters and Looters, who would object to Thou shalt not commit murder?  Do Rioters and Looters bear good fruit or evil?  Do they flunk Fruit Inspection? 

What about our fruit?  Are we part of the Problem or part of the Solution?  I have asked you a series of questions about our history, The History of We the People.  You did as bad a job of answering these questions as I did.  Been there, done that, got the T-shirt for it!  It takes one to know one.  That gives me the Right to say these things.  The most cunning deceitful, insidious, subtle and treacherous form of rebellion is rebellion through ignorance.  Ignorance blinds our minds to our rebellion.  It is never easy to find ourselves in error.  Is The Bad News about us really that bad!  Is that why The Good News is so very good?  Good News! Ignorance can be healed!  Can the Uncorrupted History in The Oldest Literature in Adam heal Rebellion through ignorance.  Does The Word of God return unto Him?

Do we grossly underestimate the Power of Deception?  Who here knows The Articles of Confederation are inoperant?  Show of hands.  Who understands that The Articles of Confederation no longer operate?  Under The Articles we had but one branch or power of government:  the Legislative.  The Constitution installed 3 branches or powers of government:  legislative, executive, and judicial.  To illustrate the power of deception may we have a  Show of Hands.  How many dupes insist that The Articles of Confederation still operate?  Were we taught The Constitution replaced The Articles of Confederation?  Why is my hand still raisedDoes it take courage to be perceived as a dupe?  Where do we find the Evidence The American Covenant in The Articles of Confederation is in active operation?  Is it in The Preamble to The Constitution for The United States of America?

We the People of the United States in order to ...  What?  In order to what?  What is the first unambiguous, expressly declared purpose for which The People ordained and established “this Constitution for the United States of America”?  In order to what?

 “ ... form a more perfect Union”

Does The Union already have to be formed “in order to form a more perfect Union”Is the Instrument or Record of the Existence of The Union The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union?  Is The Preamble The Instrument or Record of The Union's more perfect Formation? Is The American Covenant in The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union still operant through The Constitution?

What did the word “perfect” mean in 1787? 

PERFECT, a.  [L. perfectus, perficio, to complete;  per and facio, to do or make through, to carry to the end.]    1. Finished;  complete;  consummate; not defective;  having all that is requisite to its nature and kind;  .. 4. Manifesting perfection. 

My strength is made perfect in weakness. 2 Cor.  xii.  Perfect tense, in grammar, the preterite tense;  a tense which expresses an act completed.  1828 Webster. 

“Complete.”  Does that mean “form a more complete Union”?  Do we see the “Perpetual Union” of The Articles of Confederation is expressly cited in The Preamble?   

For how long had The Union existed?  Do we have Evidence The Union existed before The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union?  Where do we find Evidence The Union existed before The 1778 Articles of Confederation?

How was the Perpetual Union incomplete?  And what did The Framers do to make The Union more complete? 

There was a man in The History of We the People who wrote from first hand knowledge an account of The Functions of The Republic.  He was famous in Tennessee as the only man to survive a duel with Andrew Jackson.  He served in the Army of The Republic during the War of 1812.  At the War’s End he moved to St. Louis and rallied the People of the Territory of Missouri for Statehood.  The Legislature of the new State appointed Thomas Hart Benton as their first Senator to Congress in 1821.  He served at the pleasure of the Missouri legislature as their Senator for 30 years until 1851.  He confessed no platform of political principles but The Constitution.  He authored several works.  One of them Thirty Years View contains the answers to our 2 Questions above:  how was our Perpetual Union incomplete, and what did The Framers do to make The Union “more perfect”? 

Benton titled the beginning of Thirty Years’ View “Preliminary View from 1815 to 1820”.  He wrote this the gist of which I had never read before

“The difference between a Union and a League (was) better understood at that time when so many of the fathers of the new government were still alive.”  Thomas Hart Benton.  Thirty Years’ View. From 1820 to 1850.  New York:   D. Appleton      and Company, 1854. 

Did the Men who framed the Republic understand that the Synonyms, League and  Union, could still be distinguished one from the other?  Soule’s Dictionary of  English Synonyms lists these synonyms for the noun Union:  alliance, association, concord, Confederacy, federation, league, marriage, unanimity, unity.  Though words be synonymous, can we distinguish between them?  In our day common sense is not common.  Let me protect us by saying, Boys and Girls, Marriage is conjugal.  Alliances and associations are not!  Does it stand to reason that The Framers could not, and should not be prevented from distinguishing between a league and a Union? Is Marriage intended to be a perpetual Union between one man and one woman?  Was the Perpetual Union a Covenant by Pledge?  Is there language in The Articles framing a Covenant of Perpetual Union?  Is The American Covenant The Covenant of Perpetual Union?

Were The Articles of Confederation 1778 a Deed of Covenant?  Did The Articles confer powers of general government upon The Continental Congress?  Was the form of that operating government a league instead of The Perpetual Union? Did The Ratification of The Constitution rectify that?  Did The Ratification of The Constitution institute the operation of a government of The Perpetual Union of these United States of America? 

How long had there been a union of these “united States of America”?  [Constitution booklets page 38.]  When did that first start?  Were The United States united as colonies?  Look at the last paragraph of The Declaration of Independence:

“We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name,  and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare,  That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be Free and Independent States;  ...  Action of Second Continental Congress, The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, July 4, 1776.

“These United Colonies”We the People of “these United Colonies” published “The unanimous Declaration”

If we are still somewhat reluctant to receive the Perpetual Union as a Covenant, time permits me only two more witnesses:  

FEDERAL, a.  [from Latin, foedus, a league, allied perhaps to Eng. wed,  Sax. weddian, ... ] Pertaining to a league or contract; derived from an agreement or covenant ... 2. Consisting in a compact between parties, particularly and chiefly between states or nations; founded on alliance by contract or mutual agreement; as a  federal government such as that of the United States.  1828 Webster. 

Did we just read The Adjective “federal” means Covenant?   

Who are The Parties to The American Covenant?  If a covenant is in the nature of a Sacred agreement, and there is a minimum of 2 parties to any agreement, is identifying the Parties to The Covenant in order? 

Amos 3:3 Can two walk together, except they be agreed?   

Does our Great Shepherd want His Sheep to walk with Him?  The Names of The Parties to The American Covenant are enshrined in American Law:  96 Stat 121196 Stat 1211 is shorthand legal reference to Volume 96 United States Statutes at Large page 1211.  This is not ancient law.  The 20th Century is comparatively recent.  On October 4, 1982, the 97th Congress enacted Public Law 97-280.  After Congress declared The Bible to be The Word of God, they wrote these words: 

“Whereas Biblical teachings inspired concepts of civil government that are contained in our Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States; 96 Stat 1211.   

Is one of The Parties to The American Covenant of Perpetual Union The God of The Bible?  Is the other Party to The American Covenant of Perpetual Union, We the People?  Do we say our Rights, or Duties come from God, not man?  Do we say our Rights, or assigned Duties come from God, not government?  

A number of people, looking for the 1st Time at Evidence of their ignorance, become Annoyed.  Nobody enjoys being Duped!  I understand.  Look how many years I did not know about this Evidence.  In short, Duped once, Shame on The Deceivers; Duped twice, Shame on me!

We are on The Record here as loving Jesus and loving America.  For The Record shall we take one more look at what Jesus says: 

Deuteronomy 7:9 Know therefore that the LORD thy God, he is God, the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations. 

“To a thousand generations.”  Yes.  A thousand generations.  That’s right.  No big deal.  He is God!  He can handle it.  How many times in this life have we read a Scripture, and we read it one more time and an understanding whacks us right between both eyes of our minds?  In Deuteronomy 7:9, is the Preacher Moses?  Is The Author Jesus?  Do we have 2 Witnesses The Author is Jesus!  1st Witness.  Did Jesus at age 12 accompany his parents on earth to Jerusalem for “the feast of the passover”? Joseph and Mary had made a day’s journey before they realized he was not with them.  They spent 3 days at Jerusalem seeking him. 

Luke 2:46-47

46 And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions. 

47 And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.

Were “the doctors” communing with The Author of Scripture in the form of a 12 year old boy in the flesh of Abraham?

2nd Witness. Did Jesus almost get stoned for blasphemy and “because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God”? 

John 10:30 I and my Father are one. 

Have we 2 Witnesses “the doctors” were communing in the temple with the Author? 

Back to Deuteronomy 7:9.  How many of us here, live and direct, have living grandparents?  How many of us knew their grandparents before they passed on?  How many of us knew their great grandparents before they passed on?  Who here can name their great grandparents?  How well are our children doing making us Great Grandparents?  If they suddenly start doing better, can we cram 5 generations into a century?  Times 10 yields 50 generations every millenium.  When we reach 6000 years from The Fall of Adam, 50 x 6, will we attain 300 generations?  Is that even 1/3 yet of 1000 generations?  Either my math is way off, or God has some serious plans afoot!   According to Deuteronomy 7:9, can “the faithful God” fail to keep “covenant and mercy with them that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations”?  Are we staggering at this verse? 

Can “the everlasting covenant” be less than “everlasting”?

Hebrews 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,  ... 

Does verse 20 confirm the existence of “the everlasting covenant”?  Is The God of The Bible The Covenant God?  If The Covenant God of The Bible is our God, are we His Covenant People?

Was the 1st Permanent American Neighborhood Plymouth Colony?  What did the Pilgrims think of Covenant? 

“In ye name of God Amen.  we whose names are underwritten, ... doe by these presents solemnly and mutually in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politick, ... Mayflower Compact 11 of November Ano: Dom. 1620.

Did The Pilgrims combine themselves into a civil body politic?  Did the Pilgrims say their government was a covenant made “solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another”? 

Neighbours:  if any of you have Evidence we are not under Covenant with The God of The Bible, loving your neighbour as yourself requires you to share that Evidence both with me and with others. 

Shall we fearlessly face 3 Questions?  Were our Forefathers who framed The Republic Covenant believers?  Did our Forefathers who framed The Republic erect the most astonishing and exceptional framework of government since The Theocracy of Israel?  Is The American Covenant Perpetual Union? 

Can those, who refuse to be in unity with us in keeping Covenant, prevent We the People from doing so?  Can those who refuse to be in unity with us in keep-ing Covenant protect us from God’s Wrath and Punishment?!  If the DisUnionizers cannot protect us from The Covenant God’s Punishment, are they irrelevant to the question of our Obedience?  Our Obedience?! 


Action of Second Continental Congress

The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen united States of America,  July 4, 1776.  [“The Separation” for breach of contract]. 

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union

July 9, 1778, “in the third year of the Independence of America”.

Cohen v Virginia.  19 US 264, (1834). 

The Federalist Papers.  [Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay].  Editor:  Clinton Rossiter.  New York and Scarborough, Ontario:  A Mentor Book from New American Library, Times Mirror, 1961. 

Quotation of George Mason of Virginia, member of the Constitutional Convention, 1787. 

Quotation of George Washington of Virginia on the Front Cover of The Constitution of the United States.  National Center for Constitutional Studies.  (208) 645-2625.  Second Edition:   2010. [“only Keepers”]. 

The 1778 Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, op. cit.  [“the Union shall be perpetual”]. 

Noah Webster’s First Edition of an American Dictionary of the English Language Republished in Facsimile Edition.  Chesapeake Virginia :   Foundation for American Christian Education, 4th Edition, 1985. 

The Preamble.  The Constitution for the United States of America. 

1828 Webster, op. cit.  [“Perfect”]. 

Thomas Hart Benton.  Thirty Years’ View.  From 1820 to 1850.  New York:  D. Appleton and Company, 1854.  [“a Union and a League”]. 

The Declaration of Independence, op. cit.  [“United Colonies”].

1828 Webster [“Federal”]. 

Amos 3:3. 

96 Stat 1211.  [“Biblical teachings inspired concepts of civil government”]. 

Deuteronomy 7:9.  [“keep his commandments to a thousand generations”]. 

Luke 2:46-47.  [“astonished at his understanding and answers”]. 

Hebrews 13:20.  [“the everlasting covenant”]. 

Mayflower Compact.  11 of November Ano: Dom. 1620.  [“in ye presence of God”].