By Walter Giddings

July 23, 2023

Scripture Reading: Hebrews 13:20

What is a covenant?  This question is not intended for the pastors or elders.  This question is intended for the pew sitters, of faithful attendance.  You have “received the word with all readiness of mind and searched the scriptures daily whether those things were so” [Acts 17:11].   This inevitably leads to becoming teachers, evangelists, and elders, and even pastors.  I am a “was”.  Many of you are an “is”.  You are the future:  The Congregation; Christ’s Body! …the only Family Instrument he uses on Earth.  What is a covenant? 

(Matthew 18:2-4) 

c       2 And Jesus called a little child un-

       to him, and set him in the midst of  


p       3 And said,  Verily I say unto you, 

       Except ye be converted, and become

       as little children, ye shall not enter 

       into the kingdom of heaven. 

c       4 Whosoever therefore shall hum-

       ble himself as this little child, the

       same is greatest in the kingdom of 


                                         Matthew chapter eighteen. 

Shall we apply what we just read?  Daddy?  What’s a covenant? 

Who’s yo Daddy?  This raucous street question comes home again.  Has our Heavenly Father revealed unto us what is a covenant?  Where do we go in His Word? Do The Scriptures demonstrate to us we are an ancient people?   


Has The Word of God declared we are the children of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob?  How did The Fathers understand Covenant?  (Genesis 26). 

In Genesis 26 Isaac escaped famine in the land, as his father Abraham did.  Isaac took Rebekah his wife, their many servants, and all they had to the land of Gerar, to Abimelech, King of the Philistines.  When men inquired of his wife, Isaac, fearing he would be slain for her, said she was his sister.  One day, when Isaac had been there “a long time”, King Abimelech from his window spied Isaac and Rebekah sporting themselves.  The King called for Isaac.  Isaac confessed.  The King, upset that guiltiness could have fallen upon them all, issued an edict that the one who touched Isaac or his wife would be put to death!  Then Isaac sowed in the land and had an hundredfold increase.  His wealth and possessions increased so greatly the Philistines envied him!

(Genesis 26:16).  King Abimelech said to Isaac, “Go from us; for thou art much mightier than we.” 

Isaac pitched in the valley of Gerar.  The Philistines, after Abraham’s death, had stopped the wells Abraham’s servants dug, and filled them with earth.  Isaac’s servants dug a well but the herdmen of Gerar disputed the water rights.  Isaac had his servants dig elsewhere, but again the herdmen of Gerar strove over the water rights.  The third well Isaac called Rehoboth because the herdmen did not dispute the right to it.  (Verse 22).  Isaac said, “the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land.” 

When Isaac went to Beersheba, the same night the LORD appeared unto him, and said, “Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham’s sake.” 

(Genesis 26:26-32):

p     26 Then Abimelech went to him from

       Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his friends,

       and Phicol, the chief captain of his army.

c     27 And Isaac said unto them, Where-

       fore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me,  

       and have sent me away from you? 

p     28 And they said, We saw certainly

       that the LORD was with thee:  and   

       we said, Let there be now an oath

       betwixt us, even betwixt us and

       thee, and let us make a covenant

       with thee; 

c     29 That thou wilt do us no hurt, as

       we have not touched thee, and as we

        have done unto thee nothing but good,

        and have sent thee away in peace:  

        thou art the blessed of the LORD. 

p     30 And he made them a feast, and  

        they did eat and drink. 

c     31 And they rose up betimes in the 

       morning, and sware one to another,

       and Isaac sent them away, and they

       departed from him in peace. 

p     32 And it came to pass the same day,

       that Isaac’s servants came, and told 

       him concerning the well which they

       had digged, and said unto him, We

       have found water. 

                                         Genesis chapter twenty-six. 

What have we just learned?  Did God provide for Isaac and his own? 

Does that remind us of one of The Psalms? 

(1 Chronicles 16:15-22). 

c     15 Be ye mindful always of his covenant:     

       the word which he commanded to a

       thousand generations; 

p     16 Even of the covenant which he   

       made with Abraham, and of his oath

       unto Isaac; 

c     17 And hath confirmed the same to 

       Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an   

       everlasting covenant, 

p     18 Saying, Unto thee will I give the

       land of Canaan, the lot of your inheri-


c     19 When ye were but few, even a few,

       and strangers in it. 

p     20 And when they went from nation

       to nation, and from one kingdom to an-

       other people; 

c     21 He suffered no man to do them 

       wrong; yea he reproved kings for their


p     22 Saying, Touch not mine anointed,

       and do my prophets no harm. 

                           First Chronicles chapter sixteen. 

(Verse 21).  “Yea he reproved kings for their sakes.”  With reference to Isaac, was Abimelech, king of the Philistines, one of those reproved kings?

(Back to Genesis 26). 

Do we see our Father Isaac was compassed with Divine Protection, and Divine Blessing and Wealth?  What does Genesis 26 teach us about Covenant?  Do the nations of this world seek to make Covenants with the HebrewsDoes that send up a red flag?  We, their descendants, are to studiously avoid making any covenants with the 7 Tribes of Canaan!  We, the descendants of the miracle child Isaac, Isaac’s sons, Saxons, are to live separately.  Did George Washington preach this in his Farewell Address, 1796?  Are we who agree with Washington ridiculed in our day for being “radical isolationists”?  Are we willing to be separatists no matter how much abuse the world heaps upon us?  Will we consider being accused of being “these that have turned the world upside down” a great left-handed compliment?  [Acts 17: 6]. 

Look in Genesis 26:27:  What did Isaac say to Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, his friend Ahuzzath, and Phicol, the chief captain of his army

        27 And Isaac said unto them, Where-

       fore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me,

       and have sent me away from you? 

And what is the significance of King Abimelech bringing Phicol, the chief captain of the Philistine army?  What does that represent?  Why do all 3 seek to get Isaac on his Oath? 

        28 And they said, We saw certainly

       that the LORD was with thee:  and 

       we said, Let there be now an oath  

       betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee,

       and let us make a covenant with thee;

What do these Philistines, who are no party to God’s Covenant with Abraham, want in this proposed Covenant?  Why do they fear Isaac?  Did they confess openly to Isaac “we saw certainly that the LORD was with thee”?  Have the descendants of the Philistines in the world today, said any such thing in this century to Isaac’s descendants, the Americans?  Do the Philistines fear Isaac’s descendants today?  Or do they see certainly that the LORD is not with us?!  How do they know the LORD is not with us!  Have the Philistines, and others who hate us, lured us into tacit consent to things against which we should have enforced God’s Law of Love?  And did they infiltrate our seminaries from 1820 to 1850 and replace the faith of our fathers with a counterfeit Gospel?!  Did the Philistines know they could never get that done with Isaac and his own?  Is that why they hastened to get Isaac on his Oath, and were most eager to make a peace treaty with him on his terms and not on theirs? 

        29 That thou wilt do us no hurt, as

       we have not touched thee, and as we

       have done unto thee nothing but   

       good, and have sent thee away in  

       peace:  thou art now the blessed of

       the LORD. 

Do the enemies of God now “know certainly” that we are not now the blessed of the LORD?  Do the enemies of God fear us not?!  How differently does God look upon us from how He looked upon Isaac?  Did Isaac make a covenant of separation with the Philistines?  Can we ever again have God’s Enemies come to us as they did to Isaac, and sue us ardently for a covenant of separation?  What did Isaac do? 

        30 And he made them a feast, and

       they did eat and drink. 

What did Isaac do that we do not do today?  Did God make Isaac’s enemies to be at peace with him? 

       31 And they rose up betimes in the

       morning, and sware one to another,

       and Isaac sent them away, and they

       departed from him in peace.  

                                         Genesis chapter twenty-six.      

(Proverbs 16:7).  Does the covenant of separation Isaac made with the Philistines remind us of this proverb in chapter 16? 

       7 When a man’s ways please the 

       LORD, he maketh even his enemies

       to be at peace with him. 

                                         Proverbs chapter sixteen. 

Is there something Isaac did that we are not doing today?  Is there some thing we do today that Isaac would never do?  Are we covenant breakers instead of covenant keepers?

How eager were the Philistines to “make a covenant” with the miracle child Isaac, the father of the Saxons? Go back to Genesis 26:28:

p     28 ... let us make a covenant with thee. 

Who here can tell me how to make a covenant?  Could examining the Hebrew from which “make a covenant” is translated give us a clue?  What does making a covenant mean in the language of the Hebrews? 

Covenant is translated from H1285 beriyth, ber-eeth’, from H1262 (in the sense of cutting [like H1254]); a compact (because made by passing between pieces of flesh):-  confederacy, [con-]feder[-ate], covenant, league.  What is passed between pieces of flesh?  Make is translated from H3772 karath, kaw- rath’; a primitive root, to cut (off, down or asunder);  ... specifically to covenant (that is, make an alliance or bargain, originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces):-  be con-[feder]-ate, covenant, cut, … make a league, …   Does this mean making a covenant means, in the Hebrew sense, cutting a covenant?  How do we “cut a covenant”?

Do we have a witness in the Scriptures that our Fathers knew how to cut a covenant?  What did our fathers understand about how to “cut a covenant”?

(Genesis 15:7-16).  After Abraham separated from Lot, God spoke to him:   

p     7 And he said unto him,  I am the     

       LORD that brought thee out of Ur

       of the Chaldees, to give thee this 

       land to inherit it. 

c     8 And he said,  Lord GOD, where-

       by shall I know that I shall inherit 


p      9 And he said unto him,  Take me

       an heifer of three years old, and a 

       she goat of three years old, and a   

       ram of three years old, and a turtle-

       dove, and a young pigeon. 

c     10 And he took unto him all these

       and divided them in the midst, and

       laid each piece one against another:

       but the birds divided he not. 

p     11 And when the fowls came down

       upon the carcasses, Abram drove  

       them away. 

c     12 And when the sun was going    

       down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram;

       and lo, an horror of great darkness 

       fell upon him. 

p     13 And he said unto Abram, Know

       of a surety that thy seed shall be a  

       stranger in a land that is not theirs,   

       and shall serve them, and they shall  

       afflict them four hundred years; 

c     14 And also that nation whom they

       shall serve, will I judge: and after- 

       ward shall they come out with great


p     15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in

       peace; thou shalt be buried in a good

       old age. 

c     16 But in the fourth generation they 

       shall come hither again:  for the iniquity

       of the Amorites is not yet full. 

(Verse 7).  How does the Great I Am God of the Hebrews identify himself to Abram? 

Does Jehovah remind Abram of something only Abram and He could know? 

(Verse 8).  What is Abram seeking in asking the God of the Hebrews about the inheritance?  Are we, his seed, any the less needy than our Fathers?   “Blessed Assurance, Jesus is mine.  O, what a foretaste of Glory Divine.  Heir of Salvation, purchase of God, Born of His Spirit, washed in His blood.”  Do both the Hymn and The Scripture speak of Inheritance? 

(Verse 10).  Let's review verse 10: 

       10 And he took unto him all these

       and divided them in the midst, and

       laid each piece one against another:

       but the birds divided he not. 

Divided them in the midst is underlined!  Who here, either in the center column or margin of your Bibles, has an alternate translation for divided them in the midst”?

My Bible offers “cut them in two down the middle”!  In Verse 11 we find Abram had to do something about uninvited guests at this wilderness Banquet.  Did Abram set the banquet Table as God ordered? 

(Verse 12). 

        12 And when the sun was going  

       down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram:

       and, lo, an horror of great darkness  

       fell upon him. 

At sundown Abram falls into a deep sleep.  Is that any way to treat an important guest at the Banquet?  What is with the deep sleep?  And why does the verse say “and, lo,”?  Has the guest of Honor arrived at the wilderness Banquet? 

(Go back to vv. 13-16).  What is the Guest of Honor telling Abram?  Is this a Prophecy spanning 400 years?  Does this mean Abram has already dwelt in the Promised Land for 30 years

Does Verse 13 tell us that Abraham’s seed, “in Isaac”, shall go down into Egypt? And the Egyptians shall afflict them?  Does verse 14 predict God will judge Egypt and Israel will go out in the Exodus with great substance?  Does verse 15 tell us God gives Abram “blessed assurance”?  Would we love God telling us we shall go to our fathers in peace?  We shall be buried in a good old age!  God even tells Abram, verse 16, his seed to the 4th generation comes again to the Promised Land!  How much better could that get?!  Would Abram ever forget that Banquet?  Would Abraham tell his sons about that Banquet? 

(Galatians 3:17).  Now we ask the most important question so far in this Lesson:  Who or what passes between the pieces? 

        17 And it came to pass, that, when

       the sun went down, and it was dark,

       behold a smoking furnace, and a  

       burning lamp that passed between 

       those pieces. 

Who can tell me what verse 17 means?  The sun has gone down.  Twilight has vanished.  It is the dark of night.  Who can explain what verse 17 means?  All our quizzes have been open Book tests.  Whenever we are studying a Lesson in The Scriptures, what is one of the things we should be sure to do? 

Should we surely consider The Scriptures in context?  Does God often explain what he means?  Will the context often answer our questions?  

(Verse 18): 

        18 In the same day the LORD made

       a covenant with Abram, saying, ...    

Did Jehovah, the God of the Hebrews, show our Father Abram, the Hebrew, how to “cut a covenant”?  And what words of Blessed Assurance did our Heavenly Father tell our earthly Father Abraham? 

        18 ... Unto thy seed have I given this

       land, from the river of Egypt unto the

       great river, the river Euphrates:  ... 

(vv. 19-21).  And Jehovah, the God of Israel, also gave unto our Fathers 10 Nations of the sons of Canaan, 4th born son of Ham.  Is there a block of ten kingdoms that the end time Prophets prominently cite in connection with the Beast?  So many questions, so little time

(Genesis 15:1).  What happened in Genesis 14 that caused the God of the He-brew children to cut that Covenant with Abram the Hebrew?  Verse 1 begins, “After these things”.  When Abram separated from Lot, then did God cut this covenant with him?  There is something that Jehovah our God made very clear to Abram our Father that is little understood even among Kingdom believers: 

       1 After these things the word of the

       LORD came unto Abram in a vision,

       saying, I am thy shield, and thy exceeding

       great reward.    

                                                Genesis chapter fifteen. 

“I am … thy exceeding great reward.”  Who can explain what God means here?

What does God mean when He told Abram “and thy exceeding great reward”? 

I know that feeling.  I was stuck for an answer for years.  Years!  I tried jumping through several hoops:  The Laws of Bible Study; the need for a 2nd witness

The word “reward” is translated from H7939 sakar, saw-kawr’;  from H7936

[sakar, saw-kar’; a primitive root … through the idea of temporary purchase];  pay-ment of contract; … by implication compensation; … :- hire, price, reward[ed], wages, worth.  Did Jehovah say to Abraham and his children “I am … thy exceeding great payment of contract”?  What contract?  What payment?

(Matthew 27:50).  Let’s go to Calvary Hill, even Golgotha, even the ninth hour, when the Passover Lamb was killed.  

        50 Jesus, when he had cried again  

       with a loud voice, yielded up the


                                  Matthew chapter twenty-seven. 

“Jesus … had cried again with a loud voice.”  Were there at least two times at the 9th hour Jesus cried with a loud voiceWhat did Jesus cry?  Mark 15:37,  Will one of the other Gospels tell us what Jesus cried loudly just before he gave up the ghost? 

        37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice,

       and gave up the ghost. 

                                                Mark chapter fifteen. 

(Luke 23:46).  Perhaps the Gospel according to Saint Luke will give us some additional information. 

        46 And when Jesus had cried with a 

       loud voice, he said, Father, into thy 

       hands I commend my spirit:  and

       having said thus, he gave up the ghost. 

                                         Luke chapter twenty-three. 

Does the Gospel of Luke give us the last 8 words uttered by Christ just before he “gave up the ghost”?  “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.”? 

(John 19:30).  But what were the words he “cried with a loud voice”?  Is the 4th Gospel our last chance

        30 When Jesus therefore had received

       the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and

       he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. 

                                                John chapter nineteen. 

“He said, Tetelestai!”  When he “gave up the ghost,” in his 1st Coming, did that put an end to wearing the flesh of Abraham, as a burden?  What did Jesus mean when he cried aloud, “It is finished!”?  What was finished

“It is finished” is translated from G5055 teleo, tel-eh-o;  from G5056 telos, to end that is, complete, execute, conclude, discharge (a debt):- accomplish, make an end, expire, fill up, finish, go over, pay, perform. 

Does that sound familiar?  What was that Hebrew word?  H7939 sakar, saw-kawr;  payment of a contract:  it is translated “reward” in Genesis 15:1.  When Christ cried with a loud voice before He “gave up the ghost”,  was He referring to fulfilling the Old Covenant?  And ushering in the New Covenant with the Death of the Testator? 

Soule’s Dictionary of English Synonyms has a list of synonyms for Covenant, n. on page 108:  Agreement, arrangement, compact, contract, pact, treaty, stipulation.  Since Adam’s Great Transgression, of all the viable languages on the face of the earth, English is the most synonymous language of them all.  The Hebrew Masoretic Text contains over 8.600 Hebrew, Aramaic, and Chaldee words by origin.  The Koine Greek Text contains over 5,600 Greek, Aramaic, and Chaldee words by origin.  By contrast The Unabridged Webster Dictionary in the Reference Room at the Library claims 525,000 entries.  According to surveys, high school graduates are familiar with about 10,000 of those words; college graduates, about 20,000 words.  This is not enough to claim any kind of mastery of one’s native language.  A Dictionary of English Synonyms is a very handy tool to have. 

In the year 2000, at a Bible Study, at Christian Reform Fellowship, a brother in the faith, Alan, led a Bible Study that compared Genesis 15:1 with John 19:30.  He  noted that Koine Greek archaeological findings had unearthed contracts marked “Tetelestai”, “paid in full”.  Koine Greek was the language of commerce in the Roman Empire. 

(Luke 12:50).  Shall we hear the Testimony of The Bible’s Greatest Prophet?

        50 But I have a baptism to be baptized

       with; and how am I straitened till it be


                                                Luke chapter twelve. 

The word “accomplished” is the same Koine G5055 teleo, tel-eh’-o, translated “it is finished” in John 19:30, where Jesus cried, “Tetelestai”! 

(Luke 18:31).  Shall we hear a 4th Witness, the same Lord of us and God of us Jesus Christ

        31 Then he took unto him the twelve,

       and said unto them,  Behold, we

       go up to Jerusalem, and all things

       that are written by the prophets con-

       cerning the Son of man shall be


                                                Luke chapter eighteen.  

(Hebrews 13:20-21).  Pastor Don will read this last lesson Scripture, The Benediction: Hebrews 13:20-21.


Matthew 18:2-4.  “become as little children.”

Genesis 26.  Isaac in Gerar under King Abimelech.

Genesis 26:26-32.  Isaac’s Covenant with the Philistines

1 Chronicles 16:15-22.  Was the Philistine, Abimelech, one of the reproved kings?

Genesis 26:27.  “Wherefore come ye to me”?

Genesis 26:28.  An Oath and a Covenant.

Genesis 26:29.  A Treaty on Isaac’s terms.

Genesis 26:30.  Isaac made them a feast.

Genesis 26:31.  “They sware one to another”.

Proverbs 16:7.  “When a man’s ways please the LORD”.

Genesis 15:7-16.  How to cut a covenant.

Genesis 15:10.  “cut them in two down the middle”.

Genesis 15:12.  “an horror of great darkness”.

Genesis 15:13-16.  A prophecy spanning “400 years”.

Galatians 3:17.  30 years in the land?

Genesis 15:17.  What “passed between those pieces”?

Genesis 15:18.  How to cut a covenant.

Genesis 15:19-21.  10 kingdoms with the Beast?

Genesis 15:1.  H7939 sakar, saw-kawr’; payment of a contract.

Matthew 27:50.  “Jesus .. had cried again with a loud voice”.

Mark 15:37.  “Jesus cried with a loud voice”.

Luke 23:46.  “when Jesus had cried with a loud voice”.

John 19:30.  “Tetelestai”!

A Dictionary of English Synonyms.  Richard Soule.  New York:  Bantam Books, August 1959.  “contract”.

Luke 12:50.  “Till it be accomplished”.

Luke 18:31.  “shall be accomplished”.

Hebrews 13:20-21.  The Benediction.